Due to a terrible exactness of the report, only few other scientists managed to replicate their findings in the first location. The findings were subsequently dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the matter of cold fusion has since been considered as a taboo area.
However, some scientists did figure out how to replicate the findings, and quietly an enormous quantity of positive research findings based on experiments of a lot better quality have been published. The phenomenon is again becoming accepted as a legitimate field of research by steadily scientists.
However, what’s really going on isn’t well understood. Heat production, found radiation and detected fusion products suggest that some kind of nuclear reaction or fusion occurs, but the reactions don’t reveal the amount of radiation and the ratios of products that known hot fusion reactions do. Therefore other names of the phenomenon are often used, like Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).
The new nucleus is held together by the strong forces between the heavy particles, protons and neutrons. These forces are so powerful that they triumph over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.
However, the strong forces only work at a short distance. This is difficult due to the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In conventional fusion this is achieved by very high temperature and pressure in the fusing material.
The mass of a helium nucleus (consisting of two protons and two neutrons) and other light nuclei are less than the bulk of the same number of free protons, neutrons or deuterium nuclei. A deuterium nucleus consists of on proton and one neutron. Heavy water contains deuterium rather than ordinary hydrogen and is therefore designed D2O. When fusion occurs, this mass difference cannot be lost. It’s converted to kinetic energy and gamma radiation.
One has not been able to make a controlled fusion by high temperature and pressure that yields more energy than the input energy yet. The only practical way one has managed to exploit the energy from warm fusion is that the hydrogen bomb.
THE PROCESS BEHIND COLD FUSION
There isn’t any fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The theory behind the phenomenon is nevertheless very simple: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws state that the energy and coordinates state of a particle at one point in time determine the likelihood of finding a particle a place with some given coordinates at another time period, but the exact place can’t be predicted. Actually, a particle can be found anywhere at that other time point, put all areas do not have the same probability. Some places are very probable, and others are extremely improbable. Because of this, even a particle that is not in any internet motion nevertheless will change place randomly to some extend, usually very little, but sometimes more.
By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behavior will as always make the particles change their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get close enough to let the strong nuclear forces to take action and make them fuse.
According to standard comprehension of the standard theory, this cannot happen in such a level to be detected. Either the standard theory isn’t complete, or one has not learned to use the theory in a right fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complex, it is not possible to predict what can happen and what cannot happen with a short glance at the equations.
Cold fusion differs in several aspects from warm fusion. It’s difficult to produce warm fusion of different things than one deuterium and one tritium kernel. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels readily fuse to helium, and even fusion between hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported.
THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM
The original experiment exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of these components: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20 percent ) in heavy water D2O.
When energy was applied to this electrolytic system, deuterium atoms were produced at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterium atoms went into the palladium crystal lattice in great extend before combining to D2.
Excessive heat was then produced from the electrolytic cell, apart from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were produced, but the latter two products not in the quantities that would have been produced in a hot fusion. Therefore the fusion reactions in the system are different form those in hot fusion, and likely more complicated.
Only few scientists managed to replicate the results in the first place, because of bad documentation from the originators. However, a number of them succeeded, and gradually the conditions for a satisfactory fusion have been established. The best fusion occurs when the palladium is somewhat over-saturated, that is when there are almost as many atoms of deuterium as those of palladium in the crystal.
The saturation is controlled by the voltage applied, and by utilizing palladium structures composed of very thin layers or very small grains. The electrolysis in itself is only a means to put deuterium into the palladium crystal matrix.
A critical density for starting a fusion procedure seems to be the same density as in liquid pure deuterium. Since there is no fusion procedure in liquid deuterium, the crystal lattice probably packs the deuterium kernels together in tight sub-microscopic groups with much greater density than the average density in the lattice as a whole, and thus allowing quantum mechanical tunnelling between the kernels in the groups.
There are other electrolytic solutions than that used by Fleischman and Pons which can be utilised in combination with palladium electrodes to obtain cold fusion. By electrolysing a solution of KCL/LiCL/Lid using a palladium anode, signs pointing at cold fusion have been reported, but many attempts of reproducing the results have failed.
Any force that’s able to push enough D+ ions to the right kinds of metal crystal lattice, can be used to deliver cold fusion. For example can signs of fusion be produced by bombarding the ideal type of metallic lattice with hastened D+ – ions.
By an electrical discharge between palladium electrodes at a deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been seen. By such a discharge, plasma composed of D+ ions and electrons will be formed between the electrodes. Since also these D+ -ions will have a high thermic energy; many of them will be thrown quite near each other. Quantum-mechanical tunnelling can then do the rest of the approaching process, so that fusion can happen.
Also high pressure can be used to push enough deuterium to a metallic lattice to give fusion. By way of example, by having finely divided palladium grains in a pressurized deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been produced, and replicated by other scientists.
Also by reactions where nickel metal and H2 unite, indications of fusion have been discovered. Even though H2 and not D2 has been used, the reaction has still been reported to take place. This points to a very different response mechanism than that of warm mix. Some scientists speculate that hydrogen atoms can exist in quantum countries where the electron and proton are so near each other that the atom responds like a neutron.
By bombarding gas bubbles in a liquid by ultrasonic waves, the bubbles can be brought into an extreme oscillation of expansions and collapses synchronized with the noise frequency.
Such oscillating bobbles can send out light by certain frequencies of expansions and collapses, and from the right compositions of the gas. By each fall, the place temperature in the bobble can reach up to 10 mill degrees, though the average temperature in the complete blending is near room temperature.
When deuterium is present from the oscillating bobbles, fusion has been observed. This fusion is strictly not cold fusion, but resembles hot fusion, and the procedure sends out neutrons, gamma-rays and tritium atoms as predicted by standard comprehension.
The process hasn’t been reported to produce more energy that that place in, but is confirmed by independent investigators.
Cold fusion in crystal lattices has been shown to produce more energy than that put in. Experimental 1 MW or more experimental reactors has been set up and demonstrated.
Commercial reactors are by now being developed, but no one has been able to demonstrate a reactor with stabile enough operation to be sold in the marketplace. Commercial household heaters seem to be the first type of reactors these companies try to develop. The hope of the companies is that these will make a way for greater reactors and uses in the market.
By now it is not easy to learn how successful cold fusion will be in the energy market. Cold fusion may make a revolution that gives the world cheap clean energy in enormous amounts, but no one knows yet.
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